July 31, 2012

Q&A: Concerning Physiological Defence Mechanisms

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Humans live in an environment teeming with micro-organisms and could not exist as a species without highly effective mechanisms of host defense. The innate immune system constitutes the first-line barrier, the rapid-response mechanism, to prevent microbial invasion. Its components are inherited from parent to child and directed against molecules expressed only by micro-organisms. These host defense components are evolutionarily ancient, found in all multicellular organisms, and expressed in humans as conserved elements (homologs) shared with other vertebrates and, in some form, with insects and plants.

July 30, 2012

Q&A: Features of Peripheral Nerve Block

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Peripheral nerve blocks (PNB) are widely-used for surgical anesthesia as well as for both postoperative and nonsurgical analgesia. PNBs offer distinct benefits over general or neuraxial anesthesia in certain clinical situations. In addition, PNBs provide analgesia that may be superior to other techniques for some patients.

Adrenal Gland and Its Hormones

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The adrenal glands are vital organs which every medical student need to be familiar with. This article describe mnemonics for the layers and hormones of the adrenal gland.

July 29, 2012

Q&A: Concerning Features of Rheumatic Fever

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Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) is a nonsuppurative sequela that occurs two to four weeks following group A Streptococcus (GAS) pharyngitis and may consist of arthritis, carditis, chorea, erythema marginatum, and subcutaneous nodules. Damage to cardiac valves may be chronic and progressive, resulting in cardiac decompensation.

July 28, 2012

Q&A: Diagnosis Of Sports-related Blunt Abdominal Injury

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Blunt abdominal trauma is regularly encountered in the emergency department (ED). The lack of historical data and the presence of distracting injuries or altered mental status, from head injury or intoxication, can make these injuries difficult to diagnose and manage. Victims of blunt trauma often have both abdominal and extra-abdominal injuries, further complicating care.

July 27, 2012

Q&A: Correlation Of Chest Examination Findings and Chest Xray

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The patient's history determines the scope and intensity of the chest examination. When the history elicits suspicion of the presence of a chest problem, the physical examination of the thorax must be expanded beyond a minimal screening examination to determine the nature of the problem so that a diagnosis can be made.

Hormones Produced by the Ovary and Testis

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The testes (singular: testis) in the scrotum produce the male gamete, sperm, which is ejaculated in seminal fluid by the penis. The female reproductive system primarily consists of internal organs. The female gamete, ovum, is produced in the ovaries and is released monthly to travel to the uterus via the Fallopian tubes.

July 26, 2012

Q&A: Diseases Presenting With Finger Clubbing

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The human nail shields the distal digit from harm, assists in the picking up of small objects, improves fine touch, and enhances the aesthetic appearance of the hand. Aesthetically displeasing nails and nail-associated symptoms, such as pain or throbbing, are common factors that contribute to a patient's decision to seek medical attention. The nail may also be disfigured in finger clubbing, a sign seen in a number of medical conditions.

July 25, 2012

Q&A: Components of Protein Biosynthesis

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Protein biosynthesis (or protein synthesis) is a core biological process, occurring inside cells, balancing the loss of cellular proteins (via degradation or export) through the production of new proteins. Proteins perform a variety of critical functions as enzymes, structural proteins or hormones and therefore, are crucial biological components. Protein synthesis is a very similar process for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes but there are some distinct differences.

July 24, 2012

Q&A: Investigations for Unexplained Hypoglycaemia in a Healthy Adult

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Hypoglycemia is a clinical syndrome with diverse causes in which low levels of plasma glucose eventually lead to neuroglycopenia. In healthy persons, postabsorptive levels of plasma glucose stay within a narrow range (about 60 to 100 mg per deciliter [3.3 to 5.6 mmol per liter]) despite the intermittent ingestion of food. Insulin, the primary regulatory hormone that blunts postprandial hyperglycemia and maintains postabsorptive euglycemia, has its effects counterbalanced by several factors that provide a minimal level of glycemia in order to sustain the nutrition of the central nervous system. An uninterrupted flow of glucose in the blood is essential for normal metabolism in the brain.

Exams of the RCP(UK) - MRCP 1, MRCP 2 and PACES

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The three Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom - made up of the Royal College of Physicians of London, the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, and the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow - develop, deliver and oversee the exam for the Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)).

FDA warnings on use of Simvastatin

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Last year, on 8th June 2011, the United State's Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released new warnings about the dangers of high-dose simvastatin, which affects many people. The release also included new warnings about dosing and drug interactions. This article aims to remind us of this warning each time we prescribe this drug.

July 23, 2012

Q&A: Neuroanatomy of the Vagus Nerve

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The vagus nerve (cranial nerve [CN] X) is the longest cranial nerve in the body, containing both motor and sensory functions in both the afferent and efferent regards. The nerve travels widely throughout the body affecting several organ systems and regions of the body, such as the tongue, pharynx, heart, and gastrointestinal system. Because of the wide distribution of the nerve throughout the body, there are several clinical correlations of the vagus nerve.

July 22, 2012

WHO Guideline on Use of Antiretrovirals by HIV-Negative People At High Risk To Prevent Infection

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On 20th July 2012, the WHO issued its first ever guidance to countries that are considering offering HIV medications, known as antiretrovirals (ARVs), to protect people who do not have the virus but who are at high risk of HIV infection.

July 17, 2012

HIV-prevention drug Truvada approved by FDA

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US health regulators have for the first time approved a drug to prevent HIV infection.

People living with HIV take antiviral medications to control the HIV infection. Now, for the first time, Truvada can be used by adults who do not have HIV but are at high risk of infection and anyone who may engage in sexual activity with HIV-infected partners, said the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

The FDA approved the new use of Truvada — to be taken once daily and used in combination with safer sex practices — to reduce the risk of sexually acquired HIV-1 infection in adults who do not have HIV but are at high risk of becoming infected. (HIV-1 is the most common form of HIV.)

Fellowship Opportunities in Applied Anatomy and Physiology

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The Department of Health Sciences at Boston University College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences: Sargent College offers graduate teaching fellowships (TF) to qualified candidates pursuing the Masters of Sciences (MS) and PhD in Applied Anatomy and Physiology.

July 15, 2012

West African College of Physicians: 2-Day Mandatory Course in Medical Ethics for Resident Doctors

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The West African College of Physicians (WACP) announces its Two Day Mandatory Course In Medical Ethics for all Resident Doctors taking the part 1 examination of the College. Subsequently the course will take place once a year just before the part I revision course.

National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria: 13th Annual Scientific Conference and All Fellows Congress

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The National Postgraduate Medical College of Nigeria (NPMCN) is happy to announce its thirteenth Annual Scientific Conference and All Fellows Congress for the fellows of its College for the year 2012.