September 19, 2020

Osteoarthritis Treatment and Support

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful condition that can affect one or more joints. It involves loss of cartilage, often along with mild inflammation and changes to the bone closest to the joint (see image below), as well as weakness of muscles surrounding the joint. This results in pain, stiffness, and trouble easily moving the joint.

Osteoarthritis: Risk Factors, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Natural Course

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Usually the symptoms progress slowly over years. Initially they may occur only after exercise but can become constant over time. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and, when the back is affected, weakness or numbness of the arms and legs.

September 10, 2020

Lung Cancer: Symptoms and Diagnosis

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Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide in both men and women. It is established that cigarette smoking is the most significant risk factor for lung cancer, and this includes second-hand smoking wherein you breathe in other peoples' smoke. Bear in mind other factors play a minor role in causing lung cancer, like exposure to radon gas, family or personal history of cancer, previous treatment, and diet.

Lung Cancer: Risk Factors, Genetics and Types

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Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control. When cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer, therefore, is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both lungs. These abnormal cells do not carry out the functions of normal lung cells and do not develop into healthy lung tissue. As they grow, the abnormal cells can form tumors and interfere with the functioning of the lung, which provides oxygen to the body via the blood.

September 09, 2020

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

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A sexually transmitted infection (STI) is an infection that can be passed from person to person when having sex. You can get an STI by having vaginal sex, anal sex, or oral sex. There are several different types of STI.

September 06, 2020

Joint Aspiration

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There are many reasons why your doctor may want to inject into or aspirate from your joint. Successful joint and soft tissue aspiration and injection partially rely on the skill and expertise of the doctor performing it. Access to ultrasound to enable better targeting of steroid injections may improve efficacy.

September 05, 2020

What is blood?

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Blood is made up of liquid (plasma) and various different types of cells. An average-sized man has about 5-6 litres of blood in his body; a woman has slightly less. Blood has many different functions - see below.

September 04, 2020

Cough: Types, Causes, Treatment and Prognosis

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Coughing is an automatic reaction to try to clear your airways. The cough reflex protects the airways of your lungs. However, it is important to seek medical attention if you have a cough that lasts for more than three weeks. If you're short of breath, cough up blood or have unexplained problems like weight loss or a high temperature (fever), you should see your doctor urgently. The most common causes are mentioned below.

August 31, 2020

The Ears, Hearing and Balance

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Your ears do the remarkable job of allowing you to hear a huge range of sounds, from a whisper to a loud bang. To do this, the ear transforms sound energy into electrical signals which the brain can interpret. Your ears also help to maintain your balance.

August 29, 2020

Delirium (Confusion): An Overview of Acute Confusional State

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Delirium (sudden confusion) is a serious disturbance in mental abilities resulting in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment. There is rapid decline from previous baseline mental functioning over a short period of time, typically hours to days. Delirium can have many different causes, and often traced to one or more contributing factors, such as changes in metabolic balance (like low sodium). Get medical help immediately if someone suddenly becomes confused (delirious).

August 26, 2020

What is an Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) Test?

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An electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a simple test that is used to check and record your heart's electrical activity. The electrical activity of your heart shows up as a tracing on a special paper from which important information about your heart is inferred. Many heart problems and medical conditions affecting the heart can be diagnosed from the tracing on the ECG (or EKG) paper.

August 24, 2020

Anatomy of the Eye

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When you look at an object you see it because light reflects off the object and enters your eye. Your eye focuses this light into an image on the layer of the eye called the retina.

August 23, 2020

Diarrhoea: An Overview of Acute Diarrhoeal Disease

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Diarrheal disease is one of the top ten leading causes of death worldwide and a particular concern for children younger than five years old in resource-limited settings. Among adults in resource-rich settings, diarrhea is often a "nuisance disease" in the healthy individual. Diarrhoea can be of sudden onset lasting less than two weeks (acute) or more than two weeks (persistent or chronic). In most cases, diarrhoea eases and resolves within few days though sometimes it takes longer. The main risk is dehydration. The main treatment is drinking lots of fluid to avoid dehydration. You should also eat as normally as possible. See a doctor if you suspect that you are dehydrating, or if you have any worrying symptoms as listed below. This article deals with acute diarrhoea, which is common.

August 22, 2020

Pneumonia: key facts, causes, risk factors, features, treatment, prevention and prognosis

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Pneumonia is one of the most common reasons people go to see their doctor. Strictly speaking it describes any inflammatory condition affecting the alveoli of the lungs, although in the vast majority of patients this is due to a bacterial infection.

August 19, 2020

Neck, Shoulder and Back Pain: How to Protect Your Neck, Shoulder and Back While Working from Home

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Many countries went into lockdown early this year, meaning that some of us have been working from home for several months. Have you found it hard to set up a comfortable workspace during the coronavirus lockdown? Or are you missing your standing desk or office chair whilst working from home?