November 29, 2010

Q&A: Diagnosis Following A Typical Incidental Finding

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With increasing utilization of cross-sectional imaging such as ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the detection rates of incidental lesions have increased over time. While most incidental lesions can be left alone as they will have no clinical consequences, some are pathologies (eg, cancers, pseudoaneurysms) that could have an impact on patient outcomes. This is also true with the use of x-rays.

Q&A: Appropriate Testing for Platelet Abnormality

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Easy bruising is a common complaint in medical practice for both primary care clinicians and hematologists. Easy bruising can be defined as bruising without a history of trauma or bruising after minor trauma that would not have caused bruising in the past. Differentiating between bruising that might be considered normal versus clinically significant is challenging given that there may not be specific symptoms and signs.

Q&A: Treatment Options for Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome

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In 1930, Louis Wolff, Sir John Parkinson, and Paul Dudley White published a seminal article describing 11 patients who suffered from attacks of tachycardia associated with a sinus rhythm electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of bundle branch block with a short PR interval. This was subsequently termed Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, although earlier isolated case reports describing similar patients had been published.

Q&A: Diagnosis Of Hemoptysis and Renal Impairment Following A Respiratory Tract Infection

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The term hemoptysis refer to expectoration of blood originating from the lower respiratory tract (ie, from below the vocal cords). Pseudohemoptysis, expectoration of blood that comes from the upper respiratory tract and/or the upper gastrointestinal tract, can mimic hemoptysis. There are several sources of bleeding within the lung and endobronchial tree that can be responsible for hemoptysis. Causes can be life-threatening or non-life-threatening hemoptysis.

November 28, 2010

Pass the Part 1 of the MRCP, WACP, NPMCN, PLAB and USMLE exams

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Postgraduate medical exams like the Royal College of Physicians' MRCP exam, the West African College of Physicians WACP exams, and the National Postgraduate Medical College (of Nigeria) NPMC exams can be quite hard and daunting to get through but the better prepared the candidate is, the greater the chance of success early on either at the first or second attempt.

November 27, 2010

Pre-exposure Chemoprophylaxis Reduces HIV Infections in Gay and Bisexual Men

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A combination of oral antiretroviral therapy for preexposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV demonstrates moderate effectiveness in a major, multicontinent clinical trial that heralds a new — and expensive — means of curbing the spread of AIDS.

November 19, 2010

Understanding Medical Exams: PLAB 1 and 2

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The Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB) Test is designed to assess your knowledge and skills, and your ability to work safely in your first appointment as a senior house officer in a British hospital. It is the main route by which International Medical Graduates (IMGs) demonstrate that they have the necessary skills and knowledge to practise medicine in the UK.

November 17, 2010

Required Minimum IELTS scores for PLAB changed

The minimum IELTS scores we accept as evidence of English proficiency are changing on 1 October 2010. This page sets out the arrangements for the change.

Q&A: Typical Features Of Osteoarthritis

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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the commonest form of arthritis and possesses marked variability of disease expression. Although most patients present with joint pain and functional limitations, the age of disease onset, sequence of joint involvement, and disease progression vary from person to person.

Q&A: Pathophysiology of Hepatitis B Viral Infection

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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a global public health problem. The spectrum of clinical manifestations of HBV infection varies in both acute and chronic disease. During the acute phase, manifestations range from subclinical hepatitis to anicteric hepatitis, icteric hepatitis, and fulminant hepatitis; during the chronic phase, manifestations range from an asymptomatic carrier state to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The clinical outcome of HBV infection depends upon the age at infection, the level of HBV replication, and the immune status of the host.

Q&A: Concerning Anatomy of the Optic Disc

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The optic disc or optic nerve head is the point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. The ganglion cell axons form the optic nerve after they leave the eye. The optic disc represents the beginning of the optic nerve and is the point where the axons of retinal ganglion cells come together. The optic disc in a normal human eye carries 1–1.2 million afferent nerve fibers from the eye towards the brain.

Q&A: RNA and Their Different Roles in Protein Synthesis

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation and expression of genes. RNA and DNA are nucleic acids. Along with lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates, nucleic acids constitute one of the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

November 09, 2010

Q&A: Treatment for Insecticide Poisoning

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Organophosphates and carbamates are potent cholinesterase inhibitors capable of causing severe cholinergic toxicity following cutaneous exposure, inhalation, or ingestion. Although structurally distinct, organophosphates and carbamates exhibit similar clinical manifestations with toxicity and require similar management following overdose.

Q&A: Diuretics Causing Digoxin Toxicity

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Digoxin is a cardiac glycoside that increases the force of myocardial contraction and reduces conductivity within the atrioventricular (AV) node.