الاثنين، 15 يناير 2018

Lead poisoning

Lead poisoning


Lead poisoning


  • Lead as a metal is usually found deep in the ground between rockets at a depth of 30 km

Uses :

  1. It is the most commonly used metal in the world.The annual production is about 2.5 million ton .
  2. .Batteries
  3. .Printer ink
  4. .Bullets
  5. .Radiation protective clothes
  6. .Plastic production
  7. .Glasses
  8. .Paints
  9. Petroleum
Lead exposure

  1. Natural exposure
  • Air
  • Water
  • Food
  1. Occupational exposure
  • Batteries
  • Printing

Factors affecting intoxication:

  • High temp
  • Vapor
  • Dust
  • Ventilation
  • Cleaning
  • Personal factors

High risk occupations :

  • Batteries industries

Les risk exposure :

  • Police
  • Drivers
  • Petroleum service station
  • Plastic

Home exposure

  • Tomato paste
  • Old Batteries
  •  Lead pipes water
  • Paints
  • Dyes

Metabolism:

Routes of absorption :
  • Respiratory system
  • Skin
  • GIT

  • Absorption through respiratory  system is the most common and depends on:
  • Dust 
  • Mucus membrane motility
  • Effects
  • RBCs .
  • Bones
  • Liver
  • Kidney
  • Excretions (milk)

Blood formation system : 

Anemia due to


  • Hb production suppression 
  • Decrease RBCs half life
Lead encephalopathy

  • Symptoms :
  • Loss of conc
  • Headache
  • Fits
  • Depression
  • Cerebral edema
  • Vomiting
  • Fainting attacks

Peripheral n. system:
  • Lead palsy
  • wrist drop (Rt hand).

Kidneys
  • .RFT, BP

GIT
  • Loss of appetite
  • Constipation
  • Lead colic Recurrent in nature

Circulation
  • Hypertension
  • Tachycardia
  • Arrhythmias
  • Inverted T  Waves

Clinical picture
  • Fatigue
  • Insomnia
  • Headache
  • Anorexia
  • Abd pain & muscle ache
  • Bone & joints pain
  • lead colic
Diagnosis
  • History of exposure
  • Examination
  • Lead blood level
  • 5ug\dl for children (60 ug\dl for symptoms to appear)
  • 10ug\dl  for adult (50ug 60ug\dl for symptoms to appear)
  • Reticulocytes
  • Urine coproporphyrin
  • X ray dense line in the bones of children

Differential Diagnosis:
  • Appendicitis
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Gastritis
  • Renal colic
  • Neuritis
  • Meningitis

Prevention
  • Engineering and technical precautions 
  • Lead dust below 0.15mg \ cubic meter
  • Lead free process
  • Exhaust ventilation
  • Humid environment
  • Cleanliness
  • Blood lead levels measurement
  • Personal protection tools
  • Medical precautions
  • Pre & Periodical clinical examination
  • Cardio vascular diseases
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Psychiatric disorders
  • Liver & renal diseases
  • Pregnancy
  • Hb measurement
  • Lead blood level

  • The mainstays of treatment are :

1- Removal from the source of lead of poisoning,
2-Chelation therapyEDTA, a chelating agent, binds a heavy metal, sequestering it. A chelating agent form complexes nontoxic[140] and can be excreted in the urine,(CaNa2EDTA), dimercaprol (BAL), which are injected, and succimer and d-penicillamine, which are administered orally.
3-Treatment of iron, calcium, and zinc deficiencies, which are associated with increased lead absorption.
4-Anti-convulsants may be given to control seizures
5- Mannitol & CORTICOSTEROIDS.
About Mohammed Abd Alkariem Ahmed

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