Medical Lecture Notes

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Monday, 8 January 2018

Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism

Regulation of glucose metabolism

As you know the glucose is the major sugar(Carbohydrate) that the body uses to produce energy and doing other functions as in some hormonal functions, The glucose concentration in blood describes carbohydrates metabolism both for a healthy and sick man. Illnesses are based on what and where is the disorder, and it can cause many diseases, and diabetes is one of the major diseases that is caused by the disorders of carbohydrate metabolism.
Diabetes mellitus:

Or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced (functionless) . This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are three main types of diabetes mellitus (DM).

Type 1 DM :

Results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and currently requires the person to inject insulin or wear an insulin pump. This form was previously referred to as "insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (IDDM) or "juvenile diabetes" and found in the young people (less than 35 years old). 

Type 2 DM :

Results from insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency. This form was previously referred to as non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes"(more than 40 years old) and it's also common in obese people .

Gestational diabetes:

The third main form occurs when pregnant women without a previous diagnosis of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level. It may precede development of type 2 DM.

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