Medical Lecture Notes

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Sunday, 7 January 2018

Carbohydrate , SUMMARY

Carbohydrate SUMMARY

• Carbohydrates are major constituents of animal food and animal tissues . They are characterized by the type and number of monosaccharide residues in their molecules.

• Glucose is the most important carbohydrate in mammalianbiochemistry because nearly all carbohydrate in food is converted to glucose for metabolism.

• Sugars have large numbers of stereoisomers because they contain several asymmetric carbon atoms.

• The monosaccharides include glucose, the “blood sugar”; and ribose, an important constituent of nucleotides and nucleic acids. The disaccharides include maltose (glucosyl glucose), an intermediate in the digestion of starch; sucrose (glucosyl fructose), important as a dietary constituent containing fructose; and lactose (galactosyl glucose) , in milk .

• Starch and glycogen are storage polymers of glucose in plants and animals, respectively. Starch is the major source of energy in the diet.

• Complex carbohydrates contain other sugar derivatives such as amino sugars, uronic acids, and sialic acids. They include proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans, associated with structural elements of the tissues; and glycoproteins, proteins containing attached
oligosaccharide chains. They are found in many situations including the cell membrane.

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